The Ancient Romans are superficially remembered for their wars and conquests, constantly battling adversaries on nearly every front, from the Etruscans in the North to the Carthaginians invading from the sea in the west. Yet, between 27 BCE and 180 CE the Roman Empire experienced a time of peace and unprecedented economic prosperity. This ~ 200-year span was established by Augustus after the Republican civil wars and was known as "Pax Romana" or even "Pax Augustus," representing "roman peace." During this stretch, the Roman Empire possessed the most land area it would ever have and its population grew to an estimated 70 million people.
Pax Romana is significant as it embodies the great Romanization of the western world. Because of this so-called "peace," the Roman legal system that has influenced many a modern western government brought law and order to the provinces. Additionally, the legions patrolled the borders with success, keeping foreign invaders at bay. Compared to the constant war-waging the Mediterranean area was used to, these 206 years were relatively calm, allowing for the Roman influence to reach far countries and for the development of new inventions to happen.